Minutes of the First Meeting of the LBA Interim Science Steering Committee.
INPE, São José dos Campos, SP - Brazil
31 March - 02 April 1997
(prepared by J. Tomasella and C.A. Nobre, reviewed by F. Brown, H. Dolman, J. Gash, and M. Keller)
1 The LBA Science Steering Committee (SSC)
The LBA SSC is a component of the organizational structure of the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). The LBA SSC has the overall responsibility for scientific direction and strategies for the experiment. The SSC also develops scientific priorities and experimental plans, and ensures scientific integration among the various components of LBA.
Membership of the SSC comes from selected participants approved by SACC (Complete list of current membership). The first meeting at São José dos Campos was a landmark for the implementation of the LBA organizational structure, since the Science Steering Committee was formalized.
The First SSC meeting was attended by 30 participants, coming from Brazil, Europe and the United States. The participants were members of the SSC and selected invited researchers and others, heavily involved in LBA related activities. The list of participants can be found in Appendix 1 and the agenda is given on Appendix 2.
2 Goals and Objectives of the Meeting
The main goal of the Meeting was to discuss and define issues related to:
3 Terms of Reference for the Interim Science Steering Committee of The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (SSC-LBA)
3.1 General Description
The Science Steering Committee (SSC) has the responsibility for scientific direction and strategies.
The SSC should:
The membership of the Science Steering Committee will come from selected participants of the LBA. Appointments will be made by the SACC following nominations by officials within each of the implementing sponsors. The Chair of the SSC will be elected from within the membership of SSC, and will be a one-year rotating position among the major modules of the experiment (ecology, hydrometeorology, atmospheric chemistry). It is expected that the membership of the SSC will not exceed 30 individuals. Once the permanent SSC is established, membership for any individual is expected to continue for 2-3 years (renewable). Changes of membership (additions or subtractions) can only be made with the approval of the SACC.
3.4 Operations and Reporting
The SSC will meet as necessary during the LBA period, and may recommend additional meetings, workshops, reviews, expert groups, or symposia as necessary to achieve its mission of scientific integration, and to ensure that the LBA achieves its scientific objectives. The SSC's scientific advice in direction and experimental strategies is to be reported simultaneously to the SACC and the OIC. The SSC will report to the OIC for the purpose of seeking decisions on funding and implementation.
4 Ongoing LBA-Related Scientific Activities and Projects
4.1 Pre-LBA Data Sets Initiative
José Marengo summarized the main activities of the Pre-LBA Data Set Initiative. The Pre-LBA Data Information System Working Group held workshop at CPTEC (Cachoeira Paulista - Brazil) on January 3-7 1997, to define main objectives and goals of the initiative. The group identified potential sources of data from various scientific projects that developed activities in the Amazon, and carried out a survey to identify additional data sources. The existing data will be compiled and included in the pre-LBA CD-ROM, and will be in the public domain through the Pre-LBA home-page at CPTEC. An executive summary of the workshop is presented, with general information about the survey. Further information regarding the pre-LBA activities can be found at the url: http://lba.cptec.inpe.br/lba/prelba/prelba.html.Roni Avissar suggested including in the CD-ROM data f rom the ECMWF re-analysis and Pavel Kabat mentioned that, in principle, the ECMWF will agree that LBA could use the re-analysis, but this will need an agreement. Pedro Dias suggested including higher resolution data over the Amazon using CPTEC mesoscale models.
4.2 EU Projects
Pavel Kabat presented an inventory of current collaborative links between LBA and the EU Project. Various European research groups are working together with Brazilian Institutions to design the mesoscale field experiments. In addition, they are carrying out SVAT model analyses to try to assess differences in parameterizations and to couple meso-scale atmospheric models with carbon models. All these modeling initiatives aim to plan an optimum field experimental design, determining the optimum spatial density and temporal frequency for field measurements, and to set priorities in the acquisition of satellite remote sensing information. Han Dolman showed the preliminary results of this modeling effort, pointing out limitations and problems of various SVAT models. Maria Assunção and Pedro Dias mentioned the substantial influence of the Andes over Rondônia, that needs to be addressed in future modeling work.
4.3 Carbon Cycle in Amazonia: New Results
Niro Higuchi and John Grace presented new results from the Manaus CO2 experiment, a collaboration between INPA, INPE, the University of Edinburgh and IH, and sponsored by the UK since the end of 1995. INPA started in the mid 80's to monitor tree growth at a site north of Manaus. Since the early 90's, nutrient cycle studies also have been carried out. In late 1995, quasi-continuous eddy correlation measurements of CO2 fluxes above the canopy were obtained. With regards to biomass measurements, Niro Higuchi remarked that allometric measurements are very precise and results are reliable for periods even shorter than one year. The most interesting conclusion of this study is to demonstrate, based on field and modeling results, that the Amazon seems to act as a global sink of carbon, and it is not in equilibrium with the global environment as previous studies suggested. Results suggest that the net Carbon intake is about 5.8± 1.6 t ha-1 y-1 and that the absorption of CO2 by the forest has pronounced seasonality, probably due to changes in phenology and solar radiation, as suggested by Michael Keller.
4.4 Report on SCAR-B Results
Volker Kirkchoff described the scope, experimental design, strategy, and results obtained by the atmospheric chemistry SCAR-B experiment. Using these data, Paulo Artaxo described modeling work (i) to assess the importance of biomass burning on aerosols, with strong effects on radiation balance, and (ii) to determine aerosol trajectories in the atmosphere. Paulo Artaxo concluded that is difficult to determine whether background levels of aerosols in SCAR-B measurements are due to biomass burning effects or natural, and this question should be addressed in future experiments like CLAIRE. Tatiana Tarasova, combining SCAR-B, satellite and surface data from ABRACOS, showed the influence of smoke aerosols over meteorological variables such temperature, PAR and solar radiation. She also demonstrated the influence of solar zenith angle on aerosol optical thickness. Among the modeling efforts, Igor Trosnikov presented initial results of a model of mercury trajectories, currently used at CPTEC.
4.5 CPTEC's Regional Model
Sin Chan Chou, showed recent progress in mesoscale modeling and the current meteorological products delivered by CPTEC. Mesoscale forecasts from CPTEC will be of crucial importance during field campaigns of various LBA components. She also pointed out the need for more detailed parameterization of surface processes in mesoscale models. At CPTEC, requirements for surface parameterization will be met by coupling the ETA model to SSIB. In addition, CPTEC is developing efforts to assimilate data (4DDA) that will improve the forecasts obtained by the ETA model. Jim Shuttleworth pointed out the need to calibrate ETA and test it again field measurements.
4.6 Rondônia Hydrological Studies
Reynaldo Victoria presented results of ongoing project of CENA and the University of Santa Barbara about hydrology and water chemistry in mesoscale basins in Rondônia. The project will be implemented in a pair of catchments and will address questions of how LUCC affects water balance, sediment transport and generation; and how the water quality is affected by differences in sediment composition.
Tom Dunne, pointed out that, in Rondônia pasture, hydraulic conductivity at the surface is significantly lower than in the forest. Eric Davidson remarked on the large variation in small scale conductivity. Low conductivities suggest that surface runoff occurs during intense rainfall events. Because surface runoff generation is of the greatest importance for both the hydrological response of mesoscale basins and the erosion that affects the water chemistry, it is crucial to have very detailed studies of rainfall in time and space. Detailed data may be obtained through the densification of rainfall network along with the use of radar information. Jim Arnold mentioned that TRMM mission will support about 25 rain gauges in Rondônia, but radar measurements for just for 2 months. Since this period of 2 months will be insufficient to characterize annual rainfall variability (dry and wet season), Pavel Kabat suggested that the SSC should recommend the need for more detailed rainfall data. Pavel Kabat also suggested that scientist should request additional financial support to extend radar measurements over a longer period. Possibly, ESA could provide an European radar for LBA. Pavel Kabat stressed the need for close coordination among US-Brazil and Europe-Brazil field activities. It is also necessary to have a scientific group of LBA involved in validation of radar information and processing the rainfall data. Carlos Nobre added that there will be Brazilian AWS backing the augmented rainfall network.
4.7 LBA and Paleostudies
Bruno Turcq drew the attention of SSC to two lines of interest of paleo-climate and paleo-environment studies for LBA: (i) to verify if climate models are able to reproduce ancient climate scenarios and, (ii) to study the effects of paleoclimate changes upon the environment.
4.8 Biophysical Stratification of the Amazon Basin
Steve Prince described a biophysical stratification of the Amazon Basin based on remote sensing products. The study combines rainfall, temperatures, PAR, NDVI, net radiation, latent heat and net primary production maps. The results provide a basis for a sampling scheme for stratification and up-scaling, and identified the most important variables to be measured in the entire Amazon basin. Carlos Nobre noted the limitations of ISLSCP data, used in the study, for providing accurate gradients in studies at such scale. Pavel Kabat noted serious discrepancies between the NPP map and the current vegetation maps. Jim Shuttleworth remarked on the shortcomings of the study for estimating seasonal changes.
4.9 Remote Sensing needs
Eric Barret presented the proposed European LBA remote sensing program. The activities will make use of remote sensing products to analyze and determine: (i) surface characteristics, such as biomass, land cover, surface energy balances and regional budgets; (ii) water fluxes and balances over the whole of Amazonia, e.g. vertical water fluxes, rainfall, evapotranpiration, and soil moisture. He also proposed using the up-coming ESA satellites of special relevance for LBA. He noted that the Amazon Basin has been scheduled as a field validation site in the period 1998-2000 as part of the ESA Earth Explorer Mission. He also remarked that there are many possibilities for collaboration between LBA and ESA, and the opportunity of letting the space agencies know that LBA can be a direct target should not be missed. Because validation of satellite information is included in the science program, it is very important to fund it. In Appendix 3 a report of the LBA research issues that are proposed to be addressed by the European remote sensing program is presented.
5 Status of Research Packages Already and Submitted for Funding
Carlos Nobre, Reynaldo Victoria, Pedro Dias, Maria Assunção, Paulo Artaxo and Thelma Krug gave a general description of PRONEX. The PRONEX Project is a major Brazilian Contribution to LBA, designed to conduct field and numerical studies focused on 6 different research areas: Physical Climate, Carbon and Biogeochemistry, Atmospheric Chemistry, Hydrology, Remote Sensing, Water Chemistry and Modeling. PRONEX will have a strong emphasis on modeling, dealing with numerical models at three different scales: global (CPTEC/COLA), regional (ETA) and local (RAMS). The activities will be aimed at improving numerical efficiency of models and data assimilation; improving surface representation of processes through coupling the ETA model to SSIB and; coupling the RAMS model to the ETA and to a calibrated SVAT. The improvements of models will also cover aspects like moist convection, properties of aerosols and effects of orography. It is planned to develop activities involving modeling of gas transport and coupling hydrological to atmospheric models. The field activities will be concentrated in 4 sites, where turbulent flux measurements on towers and a short duration intensive field campaigns (IFC) will take place. Field data will be used to validate numerical models and to improve spatial variability of surface parameters through the integration of GIS tools with distributed models. The remote sensing activities will assess the patterns of occupation and the dynamics of land-use.
5.2 NASA's LBA Ecology
Don Deering described the current status of the NASA LBA-Ecology module. The program will involve land cover and land use change, carbon storage and dynamics, nutrient cycle, trace gases fluxes, and dynamic of surface water chemistry. The NASA LBA Ecology program gives priority to one tower cluster on each of both LBA ecological transects, to add a primary or secondary sites to complete one transect, and to enhance auxiliary observation sites. According to the NASA timeline, the scientific proposals are due by June 11, 1997, and the first grants will be awarded by January-February 1998. Pavel Kabat pointed out the need to encourage interdisciplinarity work in NASA's program, Jim Arnold mentioned that the Hydrometeorological NRA will emphasize the integration among various NASA's modules, including TRMM. He concluded that there is a need within NASA to work in interdisciplinary projects.
Roni Avissar stressed the need to ensure that the interdisciplinary approaches will have an advantage in the selection process, Eric Davidson noted that cross links will be welcome.
5.3 European Contributions
Pavel Kabat gave a comprehensive presentation of European LBA funding prospectus. The EU intends to allocate about 25 million ECUs to LBA related research in the period 1997-2002. The amount is shared among various projects, three of them already funded:
Pavel Kabat also mentioned that European field work will be directed, in these projects, to sites in Ji-Paraná (RO) and São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM). Eric Davidson stressed the importance of developing linkages between US and Europe for Education and Training.
Wolfgang Junk compared the goals and structures of SHIFT and LBA. He explored the possibility of collaboration between both programs. The SHIFT program is aimed at solving local environmental programs, therefore, SHIFT studies are focused on restricted areas. The SHIFT program is divided in about 20 programs without a global coordination, that is, without pursuing the same goals. Junk stressed the risk of SHIFT programs losing its identity (and consequently political and financial support) if its activities becomes too close to LBA. However, he opened the possibility of collaboration between ongoing SHIFT Programs and LBA for exchange of data-sets and general information, since both projects have mutual benefits to be gained from cooperation. He mentioned that the German Minister of Science and Technology wants an official agreement between CNPq and LBA. SHIFT wishes to share the infrastructure and the existing data sets at Mamirauá Station (Tefé/AM) and is looking forward to the possibility of establish an LBA experimental site in the floodplain environment.
John Grace described a new research effort between European (University of Edinburgh and University of Napoli) and South American (University of Brasilia and IVIC) institutions, in a project called SAVAFLUX. SAVAFLUX aims to develop mobile systems for studies of CO2, water and energy fluxes over disturbed savanna. Although the experiment is not located in the tropical rainforest, its results will provide valuable boundary information for LBA studies and the experience obtained from the use of a mobile tower can be directly transferred to LBA experimental studies.
5.6 NASA's LBA Hydrometeorology
Jim Arnold announced the LBA-NASA hydrometeorological module. The module will focus on macroscale. The goal will be to develop and use basin wide remote sensing techniques together with in-situ observation to monitor, describe, and understand the regional water budget and surface hydrology, and to contribute to the understanding of seasonal to interannnual variability. The funding approach will integrate existing funded research in Amazonia; augment the existing funded projects to expand and add activities; and add a new LBA-Hydrology activities in a NASA research announcement (NRA). The NRA will be published by autumn 1997 and by spring 1998 the grants will be awarded. The intense field campaigns will be closely phased with the TRMM mission. Roni Avissar suggested obtaining additional funding from NSF for the hydrometeorological activities bringuing the ASTER system to LBA. Jim Arnold also suggested to bring NOAA into the discussion, since NOAA has a strong interest in studies that emphasize effects of seasonal variability on a human society at a regional scale. Jim Shuttleworth mentioned the potential links between GCIP and LBA applications, such as the increasing interest in the ETA model in order to improve its performance.
Paulo Artaxo submitted the Science Plan of the LBA-CLAIRE to the SSC. The LBA-CLAIRE (Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment) is a module of the LBA Atmospheric Chemistry studies, designed to provide the foundation of knowledge required to determine net exchanges of important gases and aerosols between the atmosphere and the Amazon region, and to understand the processes regulating those exchanges. The CLAIRE team is led by the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry and involves other Institutions from Europe and Brazil. The CLAIRE will be implemented in 2 phases: one in the wet season (CLAIRE I) and the other in the dry season (CLAIRE II). The focused areas of the study will be the northern part of Amazonia. Operationally, the CLAIRE aircraft missions will track the transport in pristine and humid air-masses over the forests of Surinam and Guyanas, and from there into the Amazon Basin. The CLAIRE proposal. One of the main concerns raised by the SSC was that the site to be studied seems to be outside the main area of LBA interest. Paulo Artaxo mentioned that there was strong need for atmospheric chemistry measurements in the northern part of the Amazon (less perturbed), since previous experiments such as SCAR-B were sited in the southern part of Amazonia. In addition, the data will complement the future LBA TRACE-B campaign, planned for 2001. Carlos Nobre highlighted the complementarity between other LBA activities and CLAIRE measurements and Pavel Kabat mentioned that MPI intends to run biogeochemistry measurements in São Gabriel da Cachoeira, that will complement CLAIRE measurements at Manaus. The first part of the experiment (CLAIRE I) is scheduled to take place in early 1998. That mission may not fully benefit other LBA components since most of them will not be implemented by that time. Pavel Kabat suggested to consider other missions with the European CESSNA after 1999, and to promote more synergy with other LBA modules. Michael Keller noted that CLAIRE results will help to determine whether it is necessary to use high-altitudes flights, which are very expensive. The SSC endorsed CLAIRE, and recommended:
Reynaldo Victoria presented the activities ongoing in AARAM (Andean Amazon Rivers analysis and monitoring). The AARAM Project is an international research initiative involving scientists from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, France, Peru and the US. The project will investigate the effect of regional land use change and global climate change on biogeochemical and hydrological cycle within riverine ecosystems of the Andean Amazon Basin. AARAM will establish a network of mesoscale catchment studies. AARAM is currently in a start-up phase and field activities are scheduled to begin in late 1997.
5.9 Research Site in Bolivia
Steve Prince noted an opportunity that exists to study the transition from seasonal to evergreen forest in a compact region in the NE of Bolivia, in the Noel Kempff National Park. Since the area is immediately across the border with Rondônia, there are many opportunities for comparison studies with the deforestated areas. There are many scientific studies already going on at Noel Kempff, and extensive previous studies principally in plant systematics. The University of Maryland Laboratory for Global Remote Sensing is considering proposing a series of field studies in the Park, involving American and French scientific groups. Steve Prince suggested that the integration of this study with LBA is desirable at an early stage. Further details about the proposal can be found on Appendix 4.
5.10 Potential Sites Outside Brazil
José Marengo gave a presentation on potential research sites outside Brazil for LBA. He showed existing data sets, scientific background, infrastructure facilities and offers for financial support of each site. He provided a complete list of research groups willing to participate and provide a substantial contribution to LBA in terms of logistical and science background support. He presented a list of sites that offer excellent research opportunities in Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Colombia and Bolivia. In Appendix 5 a statement of intent of Amazon Pact nations to assume a more active role in LBA activities is presented. Eric Davidson indicated the need to have more discussions to determine whether the existing eco-transects in Brazil are enough to give an accurate estimation of the CO2 budget. Michael Keller pointed out possible limitations in terms of human resources due to the differences in scientific strength. He also remarked the logistic difficulties of San Carlos in Venezuela and the opportunities offered by Noel Kempff to study the ecotone. Pavel Kabat remarked that the EU programs did not make any commitments for sites outside Brazil. Jim Shuttleworth suggested the need to propose activities outside Brazil through IAI contributors, and that IAI have a fundamental role in developing partnerships between LBA and Andean Countries. It was suggested to make coordinated visits of IAI members and LBA contributors. Carlos Nobre highlighted the importance of IAI activities in developing a research network in Amazonia.
5.11 IAI Contributions
Brad Wilcox explored the possibility to create links between LBA and the Interamerican Institute for Global Change Research (IAI). The IAI focuses its activities on issues related to the impacts and effects of global change, on regional global change policies and economics and technology development. The list of signatory countries includes various Andean Amazon countries, and many of IAI concerns are consistent with LBA objectives.
6 Reports on Recent LBA Meetings, Workshops and Other Activities
6.1 Extended Science Plan
Javier Tomasella and José Marengo presented the last draft of the Integrated Science Plan for LBA (ISP). In contrast with the Concise Plan, the ISP provides a comprehensive scientific description of the experiment, aimed specifically towards the scientific community. The ISP will fill the gap necessary to obtain funding in those agencies that require more detailed proposals, and will be a guideline for scientific groups interested in submitting proposals for the various modules of LBA.
6.2 Atmospheric Mesoscale Campaign Meeting
Han Dolman reported the results of the Atmospheric Mesoscale Campaign Meeting (AMC) held at CPTEC on 23-24 October 1996. An experimental strategy was proposed to overcome deficiencies of current mesoscale models. The AMC will provide the data needed to initialize, calibrate and validate the models. In order to study the atmospheric mesoscale circulations and processes in the wet and dry season, two IFC were proposed, with high synergy between the AMC and the other LBA components. Additional details regarding AMC.
6.3 LBA Reconnaissance Flight
Pavel Kabat reported general impressions and recommendations of the LBA reconnaissance flight. In Appendix 6 the 13 000 km flight itinerary is shown, together with summary recommendations. The flight was carefully planned to span the whole eco-climate variability of the Amazon, going from evergreen forest of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, to the seasonal forest of Santarém, from the flooded forest of Tefé to the central "terra firme" forest of Manaus, from the heavily deforested area at Marabá and Ji-Paraná to the untouched primary forest at São Gabriel da Cachoeira. At each stop, the participants visited potential sites by ground and air, identifying advantages and problems in terms of infrastructure, local support, scientific history and human resources available. The flight provided a unique experience to feel the natural environment, the human dimensions, and the challenging logistic difficulties involved in putting LBA "on the ground". Potential sites were identified in Ji-Paraná (RO), Tefé (AM), São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM), Manaus (AM), Santarém (AM) and Marabá (PA). The SC-DLO is preparing a report of the flight which will include a detailed description of all activities during the 14 day flight.
6.4 LBA Training and Education Workshop
Foster Brown reported the main conclusions of the recent LBA Training and Education Workshop of Manaus, 23-27 March 1997. The goal of the Workshop was: (i) to plan activities for 1997 and 1998, (ii) to provide guidelines for NASA's LBA-Ecology NRA, (iii) to develop a program for Amazon countries outside Brazil, (iv) to develop a program for Brazilian Amazon Universities and research Institutions. The LBA Training and Education Workgroup is planning activities for 1997 and 1998 that involves training courses. The group intends to make use of Brazilian Scholarships for capacity building in areas of interest of LBA; and to induce Ph.D. scholarships in Global Change using Brazilian CNPq funding. Further details about the meeting.
6.5 Data and Information System Workshop
José Marengo reported on LBA Data Information System workshop. During the Pre-LBA meeting, 13-17 January 1997, the interim LBA-DIS started discussion on data issues, and on 12-14 March 1997, in a meeting at NASA GSFC the group refined the list of overall data issues. The discussions were focused on data policies, data and information standards, satellite data, LBA-DIS implementation and project management and communication. In addition, the group submitted to the SSC a request for endorsement the formation of an official LBA-DIS workgroup. Complete details of LBA-DIS issues. Carlos Nobre stressed the need to have a unique DIS for the whole LBA, and not an independent system for each module. The SSC recommendations and decisions on data issues are described in the Data and Information System item of this report.
7 Site Selection and Infrastructure
(i) Primary sites
Rondônia: 3 (forest, pasture, degraded forest, secondary forest)
Santarém: 3 (forest, pasture, degraded forest, selectively logged forest)
(ii) Secondary sites
São Gabriel da Cachoeira: 1-2 (more likely 1)
Manaus: 2 (forest and secondary growth)
Marabá: 2 (pasture and logged forest)
8 Data and Information System
9 Modeling strategies and approaches
Pedro Dias summarized discussions about modeling issues. The suggestion was:
The need to prepare an interdisciplinary proposal for coupled modeling was highlighted. IGBP-GAIM is now re-structuring, and there is a strong interest in integrated modeling. Therefore, new funding opportunities are expected.
10 Election of LBA chair
Carlos Nobre will be the SSC chair from 31 March 1997 through 31 March 1998. Niro Higuchi, Pavel Kabat and Michael Keller will act as co-chairs.
11 Next Meeting
The next SSC meeting will be held at INPA in Manaus in November 3-5 1997.
12 List of Actions
Appendix 6: Summary recommendations of the LBA Reconnaissence Flight
(prepared by P. Kabat)
1 Ji-Paraná/ Porto Velho
We recommend as a potential primary site for:
Despite of some logistic difficulties, which need to be overcome by a careful design of the final-site locations, Reserva Jaru seems to be the only site where primary forest vegetation will remain undisturbed for the duration of LBA-experiment.
We recommend PF1-site for continuous measurements of the surface fluxes (including CO2), for campaign-mode measurement of trace gas fluxes, for ecology studies and as a location for establishment of a small (forested) hydrological catchment.
The old ABRACOS forest tower may be considered to be replaced due to progressing clearing on the left (west) bank of the river.
Several candidate sites have been identified and other areas merit some further investigation. Fazenda Triangulina and Fazenda Agropecuária Rio Machado both offer good possibilities for establishment of a small (cleared) hydrological catchment. (For details see "Selection of Catchments in Rondonia for LBA")
Considerable expanses found both in Fazenda Agropecuária Rio Machado and Fazenda Triangulina. May not be suitable for micrometeorological tower measurements because of variability of vegetation state and spatial scale.
Secondary forest (following agriculture/pasture abandonment) of an adequate size is difficult to find in this area, moreover, both from satellite imagery and from the overflights we saw an fast turn-over (reclearing secondary vegetation into pasture)
Mesoscale meteorological studies
Due to the large variety of land-uses, a distributed sampling strategy will need to be developed.
Mesoscale hydrological studies
An accessible, undisturbed forest meso-scale basin (~ 10 000 km2) is unlikely to be found. However, it may be possible to locate a smaller forested basin at the lower end of the mesoscale range. A distributed sampling strategy (tile approach) will need to be developed at the mesoscale. The most likely candidate for a disturbed mesoscale basin is the Rio Jaru, although the Jamari is also possible.
Since this primary site is likely to attract a large number of investigators, we recommend timely arrangements for the logistics, including a design of field camp(s), transport facilities, etc.
We recommend further investigation on "várzea" (seasonally flooded mosaic of habitats within the Mamirauá experimental station) as a possible LBA-site. Between a number of potential advantages of this site we list:
3 São Gabriel da Cachoeira
Highly recommended as an undisturbed LBA-forest site. Potential tower sites can be found along the road São Gabriel - Cucui ( pristine, old growth forest). Best potential tower site has been identified close to a military base, roughly at 120 km point. Pending all necessary agreements, the proximity of military base may provide excellent logistical and security support. Both from the air- and ground surveys, we found distinctive gradation of two primary forest sites: one with lower trees with more open canopy on (white) sandy soils and one with taller trees and denser canopies, probably on Oxisols and Ultisols. We recommend further investigation into the origin and the relative areas occupied by these two forest types to guide a final decision on the number of measurement sites needed. Other observations:
Primary forest site
Current site (ZF2 tower) is operational through INPA, the forest appears to be intact, except for some small scale disturbance. The suitability of the current tower (construction, location) needs further considerations. The logistics and infrastructure are very good (e.g. new buildings at the station through PPG7-project, possibility of accommodation)
Several possibilities identified. Fazenda Dimona would be excellent, but depends upon plans of current owner (further investigation needed)
Very limited availability of suitable pasture sites; establishment of a pasture site around Manaus will be very difficult (not recommended)
Area around Manaus has been subject of a numerous investigations in the past, which are well documented. The site has a best logistics for (technical) supplies, and a very good overall support (INPA). The main access road to the sites has been recently paved. LBA operations in Manaus are expected to be more costly, compared to other potential site locations.
Old growth forest
Very suitable potential LBA-site; extensive area of Tapajós National Forest (approx. 600 000 ha) which has been subject of previous investigations (FAO); reasonable logistics with 3 available camps (km 67, 83 and 1 1 7), which wilI I need some upgrading.
Large availability in different ages & sorts. Small secondary forest plots can be found as a part of (limited number) of inholdings within the old grown forest; larger areas near the southern boundary of the Tapajós Forest.
The plans of ITTO/IBAMA to harvest 5000 ha between 1998-2003 opportunity for a controlled LBA-study
Suitable areas identified at distant locations from Santarem town (> 100 km), but we recommend further search. Small pasture areas are more common than the large ones.
Overflight only. Biological experimental station with good accessibility and facilities (lodge, boat transport over the river or by float plane). Surrounded by pristine forest, may be suitable for a flux station and/or meteorological station. Current tower (~ 400 m from the river Xingu) may perhaps be expanded. Future investigations of this site recommended.
We have not found a suitable area of an old growth forest in this region. There is a intensive & large cattle pasture activity. At large ranches, we encountered advanced land management practices (fencing and grazing rotation, fertilization..) We identified two potential pasture sites within easy reach of Maraba town, but many more potential pasture sites may be available.
It appears that all accessible forest in this region has been logged and is now heavily fragmented. Large areas of the logged and secondary forests closed to the cattle ranches are further degraded by exploitation for secondary products (fence posts, poles, charcoal, rough lumber,..) Some of the areas have been overgrown by vines; in other areas the pastures are being reclaimed from secondary vegetation.
We recommend further consideration of this heavily degraded forest as a possible separate land-use type for LBA-studies.
8 Additional recommendations for Atmospheric Chemistry studies (BM)
Suitable range of forest and pasture sites for scaling enclosure to landscape unit trace gas fluxes. Probably less suitable for regional atmospheric chemistry (?).
Suitable site for examination of trace gas fluxes from wetlands. Probably logistically difficult for extensive atmospheric chemistry campaign.
São Gabriel da Cachoeira
Very good site which may be seen as regionally representative for atmospheric chemistry. Measurements of trace gas flux of species which have low requirements for special equipment directly recommended; possibilities for more advanced campaign need to be further investigated.
Good site for trace gas fluxes in forest and regrowth. May be suitable for atmospheric chemistry campaign if the influence from Manaus-town is not to severe.
Very good site for trace gas fluxes from old forest, regrowth and logged forest. Plot level studies possible at pasture. Not clear if pasture sites are sufficiently large for tower flux measurements at landscape level. Good site for regional atmospheric chemistry (small isolated source area in Santarem).
Very suitable for dynamics of trace gas fluxes at pastures. Not suitable for regional atmospheric chemistry.
Sites like Caxiuana, Carajás and possibly others should be considered as a part of a network for monitoring (O3, flask samples CO, VOCS, NMHC,.. and aerosols
9 Other sites recommended for future potential visits.
1. Venezuela Cluster: Esmeralda, San Carlos, Puerto Ayacucho
2. Industrial/Mining Cluster: Jari, Urucu, Trombetas
3. Research stations Cluster: Caxiuaná, Serra do Navio.
LBA Reconnaissance Flight Itinerary. The flight started in Brasília on 13/09/96 and return there on 27/09/96